Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) ist eine komplexe Vollkontaktsportart mit klaren Regeln und keine Deshalb ist der Sport bis heute höchst umstritten. Kinder» · Kinderkampfsport: Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu für Kids · Kinderkampfsport: Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu für Kids · Kinderkampfsport: Kickbox Kids Seit jeher hat MMA mit Vorurteilen zu kämpfen, was die Gefährlichkeit des Sports anbetrifft. Immer und immer wieder müssen sich der Sport und deren Vertreter.
Was ist eigentlich Mixed Martial Arts?Entdecken Sie unsere große Auswahl an Kampfsportausrüstung für MMA und Freefight-Sportler. Bei ju-sports erhalten Sie Qualität zu günstigen Preisen! Kinder» · Kinderkampfsport: Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu für Kids · Kinderkampfsport: Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu für Kids · Kinderkampfsport: Kickbox Kids Mixed Martial Arts („Gemischte Kampfkünste“; kurz MMA) ist eine Vollkontakt-Kampfsportart. Zehn Jahre später begann der MMA-Sport auch in Deutschland langsam, ebenfalls unter dem Namen Free Fight, bekannter zu werden.
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The first Vale Tudo Japan tournaments were held in and and were both won by Rickson Gracie. Interest in mixed martial arts as a sport resulted in the creation of the Pride Fighting Championships Pride in , where again Rickson participated and won.
The first documented use of the name mixed martial arts was in a review of UFC 1 by television critic Howard Rosenberg , in The rules used were an adaptation of the kickboxing rules already accepted by most state athletic commissions.
These modified kickboxing rules allowed for take downs and ground fighting and did away with rounds, although they did allow for fighters to be stood up by the referee and restarted if there was no action on the ground.
These rules were the first in modern MMA to define fouls, fighting surfaces and the use of the cage. In March , the Iowa Athletic Commission officially sanctioned Battlecade Extreme Fighting under a modified form of its existing rules for Shootfighting.
These rules created the three 5 minute round, one-minute break format, and mandated shootfighting gloves, as well as weight classes, for the first time.
Illegal blows were listed as groin strikes, head butting, biting, eye gouging, hair pulling, striking an opponent with an elbow while the opponent is on the mat, kidney strikes, and striking the back of the head with closed fist.
Holding onto the ring or cage for any reason was defined as a foul. On March 28, , Extreme Fighting 4 was held under these rules, making it the first show conducted under a version of the modern rules.
However, when the legislation was sent to the California capital in Sacramento for review, it was determined that the sport fell outside the jurisdiction of the CSAC, rendering the vote meaningless.
The intent was to allow the NJSACB to observe actual events and gather information to establish a comprehensive set of rules to regulate the sport effectively.
This meeting attempted to unify the myriad rules and regulations which had been utilized by the different mixed martial arts organizations.
At this meeting, the proposed uniform rules were agreed upon by the NJSACB, several other regulatory bodies, numerous promoters of mixed martial arts events and other interested parties in attendance.
At the conclusion of the meeting, all parties in attendance were able to agree upon a uniform set of rules to govern the sport of mixed martial arts.
The motion passed unanimously. Canada formally decriminalized mixed martial arts with a vote on Bill S on June 5, The bill allows for provinces to have the power to create athletic commissions to regulate and sanction professional mixed martial arts bouts.
According to MMA portal Tapology. Since the UFC came to prominence in mainstream media in , and with their merger with Pride FC and purchases of WEC and Strikeforce , no companies have presented significant competition,  and the UFC is regarded as having most of the top ranked talent.
Some MMA promotions tend to exist more to build up prospects while others have a good mix of prospects and veterans. According to ScorecardMMA.
Promo Score calculation is based on the strength of Events and Fighters that Promotion has at that time. Promo Score has three main components:.
As of May 26, the top 15 MMA promotions out of 41 ranked in the world are: . There are hundreds of MMA training facilities throughout the world.
There are fighters, who train at over 80 different gyms, in the top 15 of the UFC's 10 divisions. The rankings are based on a system where a champion earns their gym 25 points, A 1 contender is 15, a 2 contender 10 and then a decrease in ranking equaling a decrease of 1 point until the ranking reaches From there, rankings 11—15 are each worth one point.
Web data traffic ranking leader Alexa Internet lists 40 online media outlets under its "MMA news and media" website category.
As of November 13, , the top 10 most popular websites covering the sport are: . As a result of an increased number of competitors, organized training camps, information sharing, and modern kinesiology , the understanding of the effectiveness of various strategies has been greatly improved.
UFC commentator Joe Rogan claimed that martial arts evolved more in the ten years following than in the preceding years combined. The early s saw a wide variety of traditional styles competing in the sport.
In the early s, practitioners of grappling based styles such as Brazilian jiu-jitsu dominated competition in the United States. Practitioners of striking based arts such as boxing , kickboxing , and karate , who were unfamiliar with submission grappling, proved to be unprepared to deal with its submission techniques.
This increase of cross-training resulted in fighters becoming increasingly multidimensional and well-rounded in their skill-sets.
The new hybridization of fighting styles can be seen in the technique of "ground and pound" developed by wrestling-based UFC pioneers such as Dan Severn , Don Frye and Mark Coleman.
These wrestlers realized the need for the incorporation of strikes on the ground as well as on the feet, and incorporated ground striking into their grappling-based styles.
Mark Coleman stated at UFC 14 that his strategy was to "Ground him and pound him", which may be the first televised use of the term.
Since the late s, both strikers and grapplers have been successful at MMA, though it is rare to see any fighter who is not schooled in both striking and grappling arts reach the highest levels of competition.
The greatest MMA fighter of all time is considered by experts, fighters and fans to be either heavyweight Fedor Emelianenko or middleweight Anderson Silva.
The rules for modern mixed martial arts competitions have changed significantly since the early days of vale tudo , Japanese shoot wrestling , and UFC 1 , and even more from the historic style of pankration.
As the knowledge of fighting techniques spread among fighters and spectators, it became clear that the original minimalist rule systems needed to be amended.
The new rules included the introduction of weight classes ; as knowledge about submissions spread, differences in weight had become a significant factor.
Small, open-fingered gloves were introduced to protect fists, reduce the occurrence of cuts and stoppages due to cuts and encourage fighters to use their hands for striking to allow more captivating matches.
Gloves were first made mandatory in Japan's Shooto promotion and were later adopted by the UFC as it developed into a regulated sport.
Most professional fights have the fighters wear 4 oz gloves, whereas some jurisdictions require amateurs to wear a slightly heavier 6 oz glove for more protection for the hands and wrists.
Time limits were established to avoid long fights with little action where competitors conserved their strength. Matches without time limits also complicated the airing of live events.
The time limits in most professional fights are three 5 minute rounds, and championship fights are normally five 5-minute rounds.
Similar motivations produced the "stand up" rule, where the referee can stand fighters up if it is perceived that both are resting on the ground or not advancing toward a dominant position.
In the U. In Japan and most of Europe, there is no regulating authority over competitions, so these organizations have greater freedom in rule development and event structure.
Previously, Japan-based organization Pride Fighting Championships held an opening minute round followed by two five-minute rounds.
Stomps, soccer kicks and knees to the head of a grounded opponent are legal, but elbow strikes to the head are not.
More recently, Singapore-based organization ONE Championship allows soccer kicks and knees to the head of a grounded opponent as well as elbow strikes to the head, but does not allow head stomps.
Victory in a match is normally gained either by the judges' decision after an allotted amount of time has elapsed, a stoppage by the referee for example if a competitor can not defend himself intelligently or the fight doctor due to an injury , a submission , by a competitor's cornerman throwing in the towel, or by knockout.
Knockout KO : as soon as a fighter is unable to continue due to legal strikes, his opponent is declared the winner.
As MMA rules allow submissions and ground and pound , the fight is stopped to prevent further injury to the fighter. Technical Submission: the referee stops the match when the fighter is caught in a submission hold and is in danger of being injured.
This can occur when a fighter is choked unconscious, or when a bone has been broken in a submission hold a broken arm due to a kimura, etc.
The ring doctor will inspect the fighter and stop the match if the fighter is deemed unable to continue safely, rendering the opponent the winner.
However, if the match is stopped as a result of an injury from illegal actions by the opponent, either a disqualification or no contest will be issued instead.
Corner stoppage: a fighter's corner may announce defeat on the fighter's behalf by throwing in the towel during the match in progress or between rounds.
This is normally done when a fighter is being beaten to the point where it is dangerous and unnecessary to continue.
In some cases, the fighter may be injured. Usually occurs between rounds. Decision: if the match goes the distance, then the outcome of the bout is determined by three judges.
The judging criteria are organization-specific. Forfeit: a fighter or their representative may forfeit a match prior to the beginning of the match, thereby losing the match.
Disqualification: a "warning" will be given when a fighter commits a foul or illegal action or does not follow the referee's instruction. Three warnings will result in a disqualification.
Moreover, if a fighter is unable to continue due to a deliberate illegal technique from his opponent, the opponent will be disqualified.
No Contest: in the event that both fighters commit a violation of the rules, or a fighter is unable to continue due to an injury from an accidental illegal technique, the match will be declared a "No Contest", except in the case of a technical decision in the unified rules.
A result can also be overturned to a no contest if the fighter that was originally victorious fails a post fight drug test for banned substances.
Technical decision: in the unified rules of MMA, if a fighter is unable to continue due to an accidental illegal technique late in the fight, a technical decision is rendered by the judges based on who is ahead on the judges' scorecards at that time.
In a three-round fight, two rounds must be completed for a technical decision to be awarded and in a five-round fight, three rounds must be completed.
MMA fighters are ranked according to their performance and outcome of their fights and level of competition they faced. The most popular and used, ranking portals are:.
Mixed martial arts promotions typically require that male fighters wear shorts in addition to being barechested , thus precluding the use of gi or fighting kimono to inhibit or assist submission holds.
Male fighters are required by most athletic commissions to wear groin protectors underneath their trunks. Both male and female fighters are required to wear a mouthguard.
The need for flexibility in the legs combined with durability prompted the creation of various fighting shorts brands, which then spawned a range of mixed martial arts clothing and casual wear available to the public.
The fenced area can be round or have at least six sides. Cages vary: some replace the metal fencing with a net, others have a different shape from an octagon, as the term "the Octagon" is trademarked by the UFC though the 8-sided shape itself is not trademarked.
Most 'traditional' martial arts have a specific focus and these arts may be trained to improve in that area. Popular disciplines of each type include: .
Most styles have been adapted from their traditional forms, such as boxing stances, which lack effective counters to leg kicks, the Muay Thai stance, which is poor for defending against takedowns due to its static nature, and Judo or Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu techniques, which must be adapted for No Gi competition.
It is common for a fighter to train with multiple coaches of different styles or an organized fight team to improve various aspects of their game at once.
Cardiovascular conditioning , speed drills, strength training and flexibility are also important aspects of a fighter's training.
Some schools advertise their styles as simply "mixed martial arts", which has become a style in itself, but the training will still often be split into different sections.
While mixed martial arts was initially practiced almost exclusively by competitive fighters, this is no longer the case. As the sport has become more mainstream and more widely taught, it has become accessible to wider range of practitioners of all ages.
Proponents of this sort of training argue that it is safe for anyone, of any age, with varying levels of competitiveness and fitness.
Brazilian jiu-jitsu BJJ came to international prominence in the martial arts community in the early s, when BJJ expert Royce Gracie won the first , second and fourth Ultimate Fighting Championships, which at the time were single-elimination martial arts tournaments.
Royce often fought against much larger opponents who practiced other styles, including boxing , wrestling , shoot-fighting , karate and taekwondo.
It has since become a staple art and key component for many MMA fighters. BJJ and jujutsu are largely credited for bringing widespread attention to the importance of ground fighting.
BJJ is primarily a ground-based fighting style that emphasizes joint locks and chokeholds , whereas jujutsu is a method of close combat that utilizes different forms of grappling techniques such as throws , holds and joint locks.
As jujutsu may also involve the use of a short weapon, it cannot be used to its full potential in mixed martial arts.
Penn and Brian Ortega. Wrestling including freestyle , Greco-Roman , and American folkstyle gained tremendous respect due to its effectiveness in mixed martial arts competitions.
It is widely studied by mixed martial artists and credited for conferring an emphasis on conditioning for explosive movement and stamina, both of which are critical in competitive mixed martial arts.
It is known for excellent takedowns, particularly against the legs. Muay Thai or Thai boxing and kickboxing , along with boxing, are recognised as a foundation for striking in mixed martial arts, and are both widely practiced and taught.
Although both may seem identical, each has different techniques. Muay Thai originated in Thailand , and is known as the "art of eight limbs", which refers to the use of the legs, knees, elbows and fists.
Techniques cover the long, middle and short range with everything from kicks to clinch holds and throws. The modern style originated in Japan and is developed from Karate and Muay Thai.
Different governing bodies apply different rules, such as allowing the use of elbows, knees, clinching or throws, etc.
Boxing is a combat form that is widely used in MMA and is one of the primary striking bases for many fighters. Catch wrestling is the ancestor of freestyle wrestling and includes submissions which are prohibited in freestyle wrestling.
Catch survived in Japanese Puroresu -style Pro Wrestling, where wrestlers such as Antonio Inoki and Karl Gotch promoted "strong style pro wrestling", that while worked , had realistic and full contact moves, resulting in the creation of the Universal Wrestling Federation and Shoot wrestling which in their own turn would inspire the creation of legit proto-MMA shootfighting organizations such as Shooto and Pancrase.
Many pro wrestlers that trained in shoot-style would later compete in MMA, which led to resurgence of Catch with the advent of mixed martial arts in the 90s.
The term no holds barred was used originally to describe the wrestling method prevalent in catch wrestling tournaments during the late 19th century wherein no wrestling holds were banned from the competition, regardless of how dangerous they might be.
The term was applied to mixed martial arts matches, especially at the advent of the Ultimate Fighting Championship. Karate , especially Kyokushin and other full contact styles, has proven to be effective in the sport as it is one of the core foundations of kickboxing, and specializes in striking techniques.
Luta Livre also referred to Luta Livre Brasileira , Submission or Esportiva is a Brazilian submission wrestling style, developed in Brazil in the s by catch wrestling practitioner Euclydes "Tatu" Hatem , including techniques from Catch Wrestling , Judo , Wrestling and Brazilian jiu-jitsu.
Luta Livre is divided in the categories of Esportiva , which is a form of submission grappling, differentiating from no-gi BJJ with its focus on quick and energetic submissions, and Vale tudo , which includes strikes both standing up and on the ground in addition to grappling and submissions.
However, the success of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu over Luta Livre practitioners, especially after the Desafio: Jiu Jitsu vs Luta Livre event in which was broadcast live by Rede Globo , resulted in the style waning in popularity,  although it seems to be making a resurgence, especially as an alternative to both Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and Catch Wrestling.
Sambo is a Russian martial art, combat sport and self-defense system. Sambo focuses on throwing, takedowns, grappling, and includes submissions from Judo and Catch Wrestling.
Sambo also has a modality known as Combat Sambo , which adds punches, kicks, elbows and knees, making it a proto-MMA hybrid fighting style.
Sambo is popular in Russia and eastern Europe, where it is taught as a complement to Judo and Wrestling training, Sambo also provides a good base for MMA with all-around skills for combining grappling and striking.
They can be highly effective in competition due to their mixture of striking and takedowns, achieved through a condensation of traditional Chinese martial arts techniques.
Several accomplished MMA fighters have an extensive background in taekwondo. In his instructional book, Anderson Silva admitted the influence of taekwondo in the formation of his unique style.
I threw taekwondo kicks. I threw Muay Thai knees and elbows, and I used my knowledge of Brazilian jiu-jitsu on the ground. Capoeira has been incorporated into MMA in more recent years and is often used as an addition to Brazilian jiu-jitsu; both originate from Brazil.
Several fighters use this martial art when fighting, although not fully, as music and dancing are major components of the discipline. It is known for its quick and complex manoeuvres, which use power, speed, and leverage across a wide variety of kicks, spins and techniques.
The techniques utilized in mixed martial arts competition generally fall into two categories: striking techniques such as kicks , knees , punches and elbows and grappling techniques such as clinch holds , pinning holds , submission holds , sweeps , takedowns and throws.
Today, mixed martial artists must cross-train in a variety of styles to counter their opponent's strengths and remain effective in all the phases of combat.
Sprawl-and-Brawl is a stand-up fighting tactic that consists of effective stand-up striking, while avoiding ground fighting , typically by using sprawls to defend against takedowns.
This is a form which is heavily practiced in the amateur leagues. These fighters will often study submission wrestling to avoid being forced into submission should they find themselves on the ground.
This style can be deceptively different from traditional kickboxing styles, since sprawl-and-brawlers must adapt their techniques to incorporate takedown and ground fighting defense.
Ground-and-pound is a strategy consisting of taking an opponent to the ground using a takedown or throw, obtaining a top, or dominant grappling position , and then striking the opponent, primarily with fists, hammerfists , and elbows.
Ground-and-pound is also used as a precursor to attempting submission holds. The style is used by fighters well-versed in submission defense and skilled at takedowns.
They take the fight to the ground, maintain a grappling position, and strike until their opponent submits or is knocked out. Although not a traditional style of striking, the effectiveness and reliability of ground-and-pound has made it a popular tactic.
While most fighters use ground-and-pound statically, by way of holding their opponents down and mauling them with short strikes from the top position, a few fighters manage to utilize it dynamically by striking their opponents while changing positions, thus not allowing their opponents to settle once they take them down.
Cain Velasquez is one of the most devastating ground strikers in MMA and is known for continuing to strike his opponents on the ground while transitioning between positions.
He was striking his opponents on the ground while passing guard , or while his opponents were attempting to recover guard.
In the year , MMA play-by-play commentator Stephen Quadros coined the popular phrase lay and pray. This refers to a situation where a wrestler or grappler keeps another fighter pinned or controlled on the mat to avoid a stand up, yet exhibits little urgency to finish the grounded opponent with a knockout or a submission for the majority or entirety of the fight.
This style is considered by many fans as the most boring style of fighting and is highly criticized for intentionally creating non-action, yet it is effective.
Some argue that 'lay-and-pray' is justified and that it is the responsibility of the downed fighter to be able to protect himself from this legitimate fighting technique.
Submission-Seeking is a reference to the strategy of taking an opponent to the ground using a takedown or throw and then applying a submission hold , forcing the opponent to submit.
While grapplers will often work to attain dominant position, some may be more comfortable fighting from other positions.
If a grappler finds themselves unable to force a takedown, they may resort to pulling guard , whereby they physically pull their opponent into a dominant position on the ground.
Submissions are an essential part of many disciplines, most notably Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu , catch wrestling , judo , Sambo , and shootwrestling.
Clinch-Fighting is a tactic consisting of using a clinch hold to prevent the opponent from moving away into more distant striking range, while also attempting takedowns and striking the opponent using knees , stomps , elbows , and punches.
The clinch is often utilized by wrestlers and Judokas that have added components of the striking game typically boxing , and Muay Thai fighters.
Wrestlers and Judoka may use clinch fighting as a way to neutralize the superior striking skills of a stand-up fighter or to prevent takedowns by a superior ground fighter.
Ronda Rousey , with her Judo background, is considered a master at initiating throws from the clinch to set up armbars.
The clinch or "plum" of a Muay Thai fighter is often used to improve the accuracy of knees and elbows by physically controlling the position of the opponent.
Anderson Silva is well known for his devastating Muay Thai clinch. In their rematch Silva repeated this and won again. Other fighters may use the clinch to push their opponent against the cage or ropes, where they can effectively control their opponent's movement and restrict mobility while striking them with punches to the body or stomps also known as dirty boxing or "Wall and Maul".
Randy Couture used his Greco Roman wrestling background to popularize this style en route to six title reigns in the Ultimate Fighting Championship.
Especially used by fighters with strong wrestling background when facing a highly skilled grappler, or by wrestlers who prefer stand-up fights.
Usually fighters who adopt this strategy use takedowns only for scoring , allowing the adversary to stand up and continue the fight.
They also want to land clear strikes and control the octagon. In order to win the fight by decision all score oriented fighters have to have strong defensive techniques and avoid takedowns.
In general, fighters who cannot win fights through lightning offense, or are more suited to win fights in the later rounds or via decision are commonly known as grinders.
Grinders aim to shut down their opponent's game plan and chip away at them via clinching, smothering and ground-and-pound for most of the rounds.
While mixed martial arts is primarily a male dominated sport, it does have female athletes. In Japan, female competition has been documented since the mids.
Influenced by female professional wrestling and kickboxing , the Smackgirl competition was formed in and became the only major all-female promotion in mixed martial arts.
Aside from all-female organizations, most major Japanese male dominated promotions have held select female competitions. In the United States, prior to the success of The Ultimate Fighter reality show that launched mixed martial arts into the mainstream media, [ citation needed ] there was no major coverage of female competitions.
Outside Japan and the United States , female competition is almost exclusively found in minor local promotions. Following Zuffa's acquisition of Strikeforce in March ,     the UFC began promoting women's fights, with Ronda Rousey rapidly becoming one of the promotion's biggest draws.
The case became a centerpiece of debates concerning whether it was fair to have a transgender woman compete against cisgender women in a contact sport.
Amateur Mixed Martial Arts is the amateur version of the Mixed Martial Arts in which participants engage largely or entirely without remuneration.
Mixed Martial Arts competitions have changed dramatically since the first Ultimate Fighting Championship in , specifically with the inception of the Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts.
There remains a paucity of data on injuries that occur in MMA, and resulting concerns with regard to MMA's safety remain.
A recent systematic review concluded that the injury incidence rate in MMA appears to be greater than in most, if not all, other popular and commonly practiced combat sports.
In a meta-analysis of the available injury data in MMA, the injury incidence rate was estimated to be In general, the injury pattern in MMA is very similar to that in professional boxing but unlike that found in other combat sports such as judo and taekwondo.
In preliminary results reported in April as part of an ongoing study of a professional boxers and MMA fighters being conducted by Dr.
Charles Bernick and his colleagues at Cleveland Clinic's Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, fighters with more than six years of ring experience were observed to have reductions in size in their hippocampus and thalamus, while fighters with more than twelve years of ring experience were observed to have both reductions in size and symptoms such as memory loss the hippocampus and thalamus deal with memory and alertness.
Bernick speculates that the cumulative damage over time from lesser blows may eventually prove an even more important topic of study than that of infrequent concussions.
In new UFC management created rules to make the sport less dangerous. It added weight classes, rounds, and time limits and extended the list of fouls in the ring.
The revamped UFC no longer featured mostly brawlers. Newer fighters were more skilled as boxers, wrestlers, and martial arts practitioners, and they were forced to train extensively and remain in peak condition to perform well.
Although the UFC struggled to make money in its early years, it eventually developed into a highly profitable organization. The sport also received a boost from The Ultimate Fighter reality TV show, which first aired in The show traditionally features fighters looking to break into the UFC.
Divided into teams under celebrity fighter coaches, combatants live under the same roof and fight each other in a knockout format, with the final winner earning a UFC contract.
Beginning in , women also appeared on The Ultimate Fighter both as coaches and as competitors. The UFC was instrumental in pushing for a set of rules to standardize the sport globally, and by regulatory bodies in the United States and many fighting promotions worldwide had adopted standards known as the Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts.
Under these rules, MMA participants compete in a ring or a fenced area, and they fight using padded fingerless gloves but do not wear shoes or headgear.
They may strike, throw, kick, or grapple with an opponent, and attacks may be launched either from a standing position or on the ground. UFC Live and Upcoming.
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